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- Feeling of heaviness or soreness in the scrotum.
- Feeling enlarged, or twisted veins in the scrotum. They can feel like worms or spaghetti.
- Veins typically change in size, and are larger when standing or straining.
- Semen tests
- Blood tests to look for testicular injury in adolescents
- Open surgery—the vein is surgically cut and tied off
- Catheter ablation—heat is applied through a catheter to destroy the vein
- Catheter embolization—a substance is placed in the vein to block it
- Laparoscopy —involves the use of a thin, lighted tube inserted into the abdomen to view the vessels in the body as they lead to the testicle
American Society for Reproductive Medicine http://www.asrm.org
American Urological Association http://www.auanet.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
The College of Family Physicians of Canada http://www.cfpc.ca
Khera M, Lipshultz LI. Evolving approach to the varicocele. Urol Clin North Am . 2008;35(2):183-189.
Painless scrotal mass. Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary%5Fdisorders/symptoms%5Fof%5Fgenitourinary%5Fdisorders/painless%5Fscrotal%5Fmass.html . Updated February 2012. Accessed May 29, 2013.
Robinson SP, Hampton LJ, Koo HP. Treatment strategy for the adolescent varicocele. Urol Clin North Am . 2010;37(2):269-278.
The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Report on varicocele and infertility. American Society of Reproductive Medicine website. Available at: http://www.asrm.org/uploadedFiles/ASRM%5FContent/News%5Fand%5FPublications/Practice%5FGuidelines/Joint%5FReports/Report%5Fon%5Fvaricocele(1).pdf . Published 2001. Accessed May 29, 2013.
Varicocele. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated May 10, 2013. Accessed May 29, 2013.
Varicocele. Nemours Kids Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/teen/sexual%5Fhealth/guys/varicocele.html . Updated May 2011. Accessed May 29, 2013.
Varicoceles. Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.cfm?article=116 . Updated January 2011. Accessed May 29, 2013.
Wampler SM, Llanes M. Common scrotal and testicular problems. Prim Care . 2010;37(3):613-629.
- Reviewer: Adrienne Carmack, MD; Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 05/2013
- Update Date: 03/18/2013