(Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy; HIE; Cerebral Hypoxia)
- The placenta separating from the uterine wall too early
- Pressure on the umbilical cord
- Certain medications
- Breathing in meconium from the amniotic fluid
- Birth trauma
- Previous still birth
- Fetal heart rate abnormalities
- Water breaking more than 12 hours before delivery
- Meconium in the fluid surrounding the baby before birth
- Hemorrhage occurring prior to childbirth
- Fever in the mother
- Prolonged first and second stages of labor
- Pre-term or post-term labor
- Delivery with forceps or a vacuum device
- Poor muscle tone
- Extreme drowsiness
- Feeding difficulties, including poor suck
- Poor arousal
- Blue-colored skin or lips
- Difficulty breathing
Lowering Body Temperature
Brain Injury Association of America http://www.biausa.org
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.ca
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Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Neurographics website. Available at: http://www.neurographics.org/2/1/1/4.shtml. Accessed February 19, 2013.
Itoo BA, Al-Hawsawi ZM, Khan AH. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Incidence and risk factors in North Western Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal . 2003;24:147-153.
Puohit D, Silverstein S. Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In: Gilman S, ed. MedLink Neurology . San Diego, CA: MedLink.
Schulzke SM, Rao S, Patole SK. A systematic review of cooling for neuroprotection in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy-are we there yet? BMC Pediatr . 2007;7:30.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 11/14/2013