Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
- A blow or jolt to the head
- Severe jarring or shaking
- Abruptly coming to a stop
- Depression, including feeling suicidal
- Poor concentration
- Memory problems
- Poor judgment
- Muscle twitching
- Ask about your symptoms.—It is important that you and your family members talk about any behavior or personality changes that you have had.
- Take your medical history.—Your doctor will focus on your history of head injuries
- Do a physical exam.
|CT Scan of the Head|
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- Taking certain medicines (eg, antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers)
- Making lifestyle changes, such as exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and avoiding alcohol and drugs
- Working with a therapist and joining a support group to help with the emotional challenges
- Following your doctor’s instructions after suffering a concussion—This includes waiting to return to sports until your doctor says it is safe to do so.
- Avoiding dangerous game play
- Wearing proper protective equipment (such as helmets)
- Wear a helmet when doing any at-risk activity, like riding a motorcycle or bicycle, skiing, snowboarding.
- Wear a seatbelt in the car.
- Do not drink and drive or get into a vehicle with someone who is under the influence.
- Make your home safe (eg, remove items that you could easily trip over, install night lights).
- Get help right away if you are in an abusive relationship.
Boston University Center for Traumatic Brain Injury http://www.bu.edu/cste/
Sports Legacy Institute http://www.sportslegacy.org/
Brain Injury Association of Alberta http://www.biaa.ca/
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.on.ca/
Blast anatomy—chronic traumatic encephalopathy in military vets. Alzheimer Research Forum website. Available at: http://www.alzforum.org/new/detail.asp?id=3159. Published May 18, 2012. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Sports Legacy Institute website. Available at: http://www.sportslegacy.org/cte-concussions/what-is-cte/. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Kowall N. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and its connection with ALS. US Department of Veterans Affairs website. Available at: http://www.va.gov/RAC-GWVI/docs/Minutes%5Fand%5FAgendas/Minutes%5FNov2010%5FAppendixA%5FPresentation7.pdf. Published November 2010. Accessed May 29, 2012.
LaVecchia F. Traumatic brain injury. Indian Health Service website. Available at: http://www.ihs.gov/suicidepreventionsummit/documents/TraumaBrainInjuryLaVecchiaPresentation.pdf. Accessed May 29, 2012.
McKee A, Cantu R, Nowinski C, et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy following repetitive head injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009; 68(7):709-735.
Moderate to severe traumatic head injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Updated April 5, 2010. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Navarro R. Protective equipment and prevention of concussion—what is the evidence. Sports Physical Therapy Section website. Available at: http://www.spts.org/assets/files/CSMR%20Concussion%20equipment.pdf. Published 2011. Accessed May 29, 2012.
NINDS Encephalopathy information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/encephalopathy/encephalopathy.htm. Updated November 9, 2010. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Prevention: What Can I do to Help Prevent Concussion and other forms of TBI? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/prevention.html. Updated May 16, 2012. Accessed May 29, 2012.
Traumatic brain injury: hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/tbi/detail%5Ftbi.htm#193693218. Updated May 14, 2012. Accessed May 29, 2012.
What is CTE? Center for the Study of Traumatic Encephalopathy website. Available at: http://www.bu.edu/cste/about/what-is-cte/. Accessed May 29, 2012.
- Reviewer: Marjorie Bunch, MD
- Update Date: 07/25/2012