Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
(PPHN; Persistent Fetal Circulation [PFC]; Syndrome of Pulmonary Hypertension of Newborn [SPHN])
|Circulatory System of Infant|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
An event or illness during pregnancy or childbirth
- Meconium aspiration syndrome (the baby inhales meconium—the first stool—prior to or shortly after birth)
- Severe pneumonia
- Low blood sugar
- Birth asphyxia (loss of oxygen to the fetus during delivery)
- Respiratory distress syndrome —caused by lungs that have not fully developed
- Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen) by mother during pregnancy
- Late trimester maternal use of antidepressants (particularly a group called SSRI antidepressants)
- Amniotic fluid leak
- Low amniotic fluid (oligohydramnios)
- Abnormal lung development as a result of congenital diaphragmatic hernia or Potter syndrome
- Stress during pregnancy
- Isolated condition with an unknown cause
- Stress to the fetus during pregnancy or delivery
- Health conditions of the mother, including diabetes
- Complications during birth or pregnancy
- Rapid breathing—tachypnea
- Rapid heart rate— tachycardia
- Difficulty breathing—signs may include flared nostrils or grunting
- Blue tint to the skin, even when the baby is receiving oxygen
- Chest x-rays —to help diagnose lung disease or enlarged heart
- Echocardiogram —ultrasound of the heart to show the baby's circulating blood flow
- Head ultrasound —to look for bleeding in the brain
- Arterial blood gas (ABG)—measure oxygen in the blood
- Complete blood count (CBC)—measure blood components like red blood cells
- Serum electrolyte tests
- Pulse oximetry monitoring—continuous monitoring of oxygen levels in the blood
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)
- Get good prenatal care. Start as early as possible in pregnancy.
- Eat a healthful diet. Take vitamins as suggested by your doctor.
- Do not smoke. Avoid alcohol or drug use.
- Only take medicines that your doctor has approved.
American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org/
British Columbia Ministry of Health http://bchealthguide.org
Canadian Medical Association Journal http://www.cmaj.ca
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Cincinnati Children's Hospital website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/e/ecmo/ . Accessed July 26, 2012.
Kleigman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 18th ed. Saunders: Philadelphia, PA; 2007.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated February 2012. Accessed July 26, 2012.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). KidsHealth for Parents: Medical Problems. The Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org . Accessed July 26, 2012.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Children's Hospital Colorado website. Available at: http://www.childrenscolorado.org/wellness/info/parents/20830.aspx . Accessed July 26, 2012.
PS Shah, A Ohlsson. Sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 3:CD005494.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013
- Update Date: 09/30/2013