Supplement Forms / Alternate Names
- Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC)
- L-Acetyl-Carnitine (LAC)
- Propionyl L-Carnitine
Principal Proposed Uses
Other Proposed Uses
- Alzheimer's Disease
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
- Celiac Disease
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Diabetic Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy
- Enhancing Mental Function in Seniors
- Fatigue in Seniors
- High Cholesterol
- HIV Support
- Hyperactivity in Fragile X Syndrome
- Liver Cirrhosis
- Sports Performance Enhancement
- Weight Loss
|Beef steak, cooked||4 ounces||56-162|
|Ground beef, cooked||4 ounces||87-99|
|Milk, whole||1 cup||8|
|Codfish, cooked||4 ounces||4-7|
|Chicken breast, cooked||4 ounces||3-5|
|Ice cream||½ cup||3|
|Cheddar cheese||2 ounces||2|
|Whole wheat bread||2 slices||0.2|
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Carnitine?
Congestive Heart Failure
After a Heart Attack
Male Sexual Function
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
Interactions You Should Know About
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2 Chung S, Choi J, Hyun T, et al. Alterations in the carnitine metabolism in epileptic children treated with valproic acid. J Korean Med Sci. 1997;12:553-558.
3 Melegh B, Trombitas K. Valproate treatment induces lipid globule accumulation with ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. Neuropediatrics. 1997;28:257-261.
4 Zelnik N, Fridkis I, Gruener N. Reduced carnitine and antiepileptic drugs: cause relationship or co-existence? Acta Paediatr. 1995;84:93-95.
5 Coulter DL. Carnitine deficiency in epilepsy: risk factors and treatment. J Child Neurol. 1995;10(suppl 2):S32-S39.
6 Melegh B, Pap M, Morava E, et al. Carnitine-dependent changes of metabolic fuel consumption during long-term treatment with valproic acid. J Pediatr. 1994;125:317-321.
7 De Vivo DC, Bohan TP, Coulter DL, et al. L-carnitine supplementation in childhood epilepsy: current perspectives. Epilepsia. 1998;13:1216-1225.
8 Matsuda I, Ohtani Y. Carnitine status in Reye and Reye-like syndromes. Pediatr Neurol. 1986;2:90-94.
9 Camina MF, Rozas I, Gomez M, et al. Short-term effects of administration of anticonvulsant drugs on free carnitine and acylcarnitine in mouse serum and tissues. Br J Pharmacol. 1991;103:1179-1183.
10 Rodriguez-Segade S, de la Pena CA, Tutor JC, et al. Carnitine deficiency associated with anticonvulsant therapy. Clin Chim Acta. 1989;181:175-181.
11 Ater SB. A developmental center population treated with VPA and L-carnitine. In: Update 1993: inborn errors of metabolism in the patient with epilepsy. Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals; 1993.
12 Cacciatore L, Cerio R, Ciarimboli M, et al. The therapeutic effect of L-carnitine in patients with exercise-induced stable angina: a controlled study. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1991;17:225-235.
13 Bartels GL, Remme WJ, Pillay M, et al. Effects of L-propionylcarnitine on ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in men with angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol. 1994;74:125-130.
14 Bartels GL, Remme WJ, den Hartog FR, et al. Additional anti-ischemic effects of long-term L-propionylcarnitine in anginal patients treated with conventional antianginal therapy. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1995;9:749-753.
15 Bartels GL, Remme WJ, Holwerda KJ, et al. Anti-ischaemic efficacy of L-propionyl-carnitine—a promising novel metabolic approach to ischaemia? Eur Heart J. 1996;17:414-420.
16 Cherchi A, Lai C, Angelino F, et al. Effects of L-carnitine on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1985;23:569-572.
17 Lagioia R, Scrutinio D, Mangini SG, et al. Propionyl-L-carnitine: a new compound in the metabolic approach to the treatment of effort angina. Int J Cardiol. 1992;34:167-172.
18 Davini P, Bigalli A, Lamanna F, et al. Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post-infarction. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992;18:355-365.
19 Iliceto S, Scrutinio D, Bruzzi P, et al. Effect of L-carnitine administration on left ventricular remodeling after acute anterior myocardial infarction: the L-Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:380-387.
20 Brevetti G, Perna S, Sabba C, et al. Propionyl-L-carnitine in intermittent claudication: double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose titration, multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26:1411-1416.
21 Bolognesi M, Amodio P, Merkel C, et al. Effect of 8-day therapy with propionyl-L-carnitine on muscular and subcutaneous blood flow of the lower limbs in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clin Physiol. 1995;15:417-423.
22 Brevetti G, Perna S, Sabba C, et al. Superiority of L-propionylcarnitine vs L-carnitine in improving walking capacity in patients with peripheral vascular disease: an acute, intravenous, double-blind, cross-over study. Eur Heart J. 1992;13:251-255.
23 Greco AV, Mingrone G, Bianchi M, et al. Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of diabetic angiopathy: Controlled double blind trial versus placebo. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992;18:69-80.
24 Brevetti G, Chiariello M, Ferulano G, et al. Increases in walking distance in patients with peripheral vascular disease treated with L-carnitine: a double-blind, cross-over study. Circulation. 1988;77:767-773.
25 Deckert J. Propionyl-L-carnitine for intermittent claudication. J Fam Pract. 1997;44:533-534.
26 Sabba C, Berardi E, Antonica G, et al. Comparison between the effect of L-propionylcarnitine, L-acetylcarnitine and nitroglycerin in chronic peripheral arterial disease: a haemodynamic double blind echo-Doppler study. Eur Heart J. 1994;15:1348-1352.
27 Pepine CJ. The therapeutic potential of carnitine in cardiovascular disorders. Clin Ther. 1991;13:2-21.
28 Brevetti G, Attisano T, Perna S, et al. Effect of L-carnitine on the reactive hyperemia in patients affected by peripheral vascular disease: a double-blind, crossover study. Angiology. 1989;40:857-862.
29 Brevetti G, Diehm C, Lambert D. European multicenter study on propionyl-L-carnitine in intermittent claudication. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34:1618-1624.
30 Hiatt WR, Regensteiner JG, Creager MA, et al. Propionyl-L-carnitine improves exercise performance and functional status in patients with claudication. Am J Med. 2001;110:616-622.
31 Caponnetto S, Canale C, Masperone MA, et al. Efficacy of L-propionylcarnitine treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Eur Heart J. 1994;15:1267-1273.
32 Mancini M, Rengo F, Lingetti M, et al. Controlled study on the therapeutic efficacy of propionyl-L-carnitine in patients with congestive heart failure. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992;42:1101-1104.
33 Pucciarelli G, Mastursi M, Latte S, et al. The clinical and hemodynamic effects of propionyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of congestive heart failure [in Italian; English abstract]. Clin Ter. 1992;141:379-384.
34 Singh RB, Niaz MA, Agarwal P, et al. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of L-carnitine in suspected acute myocardial infarction. Postgrad Med J. 1996;72:45-50.
35 Winter S, Jue K, Prochazka J, et al. The role of L-carnitine in pediatric cardiomyopathy. J Child Neurol. 1995;10(suppl 2):S45-S51.
36 Iyer R, Gupta A, Khan A, et al. Does left ventricular function improve with L-carnitine after acute myocardial infarction? J Postgrad Med. 1999;45:38-41.
37 Dal Negro R, Pomari G, Zoccatelli O, et al. L-carnitine and rehabilitative respiratory physiokinesitherapy: metabolic and ventilatory response in chronic respiratory insufficiency. Int J Clin Pharmacol. 1986;24:453-456.
38 Dal Negro R, Turco P, Pomari C, et al. Effects of L-carnitine on physical performance in chronic respiratory insufficiency. Int J Clin Pharmacol. 1988;26:269-272.
39 Dal Negro R, Zoccatelli D, Pomari C, et al. L-carnitine and physiokinesiotherapy in chronic respiratory insufficiency. Preliminary results. Clin Trials J. 1985;22:353-360.
40 Passeri M, Cucinotta D, Bonati PA, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1990;10:75-79.
41 Calvani M, Carta A, Caruso G, et al. Action of acetyl-L-carnitine in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992;663:483-486.
42 Sano M, Bell K, Cote L, et al. Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol. 1992;49:1137-1141.
43 Spagnoli A, Lucca U, Menasce G, et al. Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1991;41:1726-1732.
44 Campi N, Todeschini GP, Scarzella L. Selegiline versus L-acetylcarnitine in the treatment of Alzheimer-type dementia. Clin Ther. 1990;12:306-314.
45 Vecchi GP, Chiari G, Cipolli C, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine treatment of mental impairment in the elderly: evidence from a multicenter study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1991;(suppl 2):159-168.
46 Bonavita E. Study of the efficacy and tolerability of L-acetylcarnitine therapy in the senile brain. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1986;24:511-516.
47 Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1996;47:705-711.
48 Thal LJ, Calvani M, Amato A, et al. A 1-year controlled trial of acetyl-l-carnitine in early-onset AD. Neurology. 2000;55:805-810.
49 Bella R, Biondi R, Raffaele R, et al. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on geriatric patients suffering from dysthymic disorders. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res. 1990;10:355-360.
50 Garzya G, Corallo D, Fiore A, et al. Evaluation of the effects of L-acetylcarnitine on senile patients suffering from depression. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1990;16:101-106.
51 Torrioli MG, Vernacotola S, Mariotti P, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-acetylcarnitine for the treatment of hyperactive behavior in fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1999;87:366-368.
52 Mingrone G, Greco AV, Capristo E, et al. L-carnitine improves glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18:77-82.
53 Turpeinen AK, Kuikka JT, Vanninen E, et al. Long-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on myocardial 123I-MIBG uptake in patients with diabetes. Clin Auton Res. 2000;10:13-16.
54 Cavallini G, Biagiotti G, Koverech A, et al. Oral propionyl-l-carnitine and intraplaque verapamil in the therapy of advanced and resistant Peyronie's disease. BJU Int. 2002;89:895-900.
55 Sorbi S, Forleo P, Fani C, et al. Double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial with L-acetylcarnitine in patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2000;23:114-118.
56 Plioplys AV, Plioplys S. Amantadine and L-carnitine treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychobiology. 1997;35:16-23.
57 Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A, et al. Usefulness of l-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:3579-3594.
58 Loumbakis P, Anezinis P, Evangeliou A, et al. Effect of L-carnitine in patients with asthenospermia [abstract]. Eur Urol. 1996;30(suppl 2):255.
59 Muller-Tyl E, Lohninger A, Fischl F, et al. The effect of carnitine on sperm count and sperm motility [translated from German]. Fertilitat. 1988;4:1-4.
60 Micic S, Lalic N, Nale DJ, et al. Effects of L-carnitine on sperm motility and number in infertile men [abstract]. Fertil Steril. 1998;70(3 suppl 1):S12.
61 Vicari E. Effectiveness of a short-term anti-oxidative high-dose therapy on IVF program outcome in infertile male patients with previous excessive sperm. In: International Meeting on Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Technology; Porto Cervo, Italy; June 11-14, 1997.
62 Vicari E, Cerri L, Cataldo T, et al. Effectiveness of single and combined antioxidant therapy in patients with astheno-necrozoospermia from non-bacterial epididymitis: effects after acetyl-carnitine or carnitine-acetyl-carnitine. Presented at: 12th National Conference, Italian Andrology Association; June 9-12, 1999; Copanello, Italy.
63 Campaniello E, Petrarolo N, Meriggiola MC, et al. Carnitine administration in asthenospermia. Presented at: 4th International Congress of Andrology; May 14-18, 1989; Florence, Italy.
64 Costa M, Canale D, Filicori M, et al. L-carnitine in idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a multicenter study. Andrologia. 1994;26:155-159.
65 Vitali G, Parente R, Melotti C. Carnitine supplementation in human idiopathic asthenospermia: clinical results. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1995;21:157-159.
66 Moncada ML, Vicari E, Cimino C, et al. Effect of acetylcarnitine treatment in oligoasthenospermic patients. Acta Eur Fertil. 1992;23:221-224.
67 Semino-Mora MC, Leon-Monzon ME, Dalakas MC. Effect of L-carnitine on the zidovudine-induced destruction of human myotubes. Part I: L-carnitine prevents the myotoxicity of AZT in vitro. Lab Invest. 1994;71:102-112.
68 Dalakas MC, Leon-Monzon ME, Bernardini I, et al. Zidovudine-induced mitochondrial myopathy is associated with muscle carnitine deficiency and lipid storage. Ann Neurol. 1994;35:482-487.
69 Heinonen OJ. Carnitine and physical exercise. Sports Med. 1996;22:109-132.
70 Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;18:61-71
71 Lenzi A, Lombardo F, Sgro P, et al. Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial. Fertil Steril. 2003;79:292-300.
72 Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003;18:61-71.
73 Van Oudheusden L, Scholte H. Efficacy of carnitine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002;67:33.
74 Biagiotti G, Cavallini G. Acetyl-L-carnitine vs tamoxifen in the oral therapy of Peyronie's disease: a preliminary report. BJU Int. 2001;88:63-67.
75 Benvenga S, Lakshmanan M, Trimarchi F. Carnitine is a naturally occurring inhibitor of thyroid hormone nuclear uptake. Thyroid. 2000;10:1043-1050.
76 Rai G, Wright G, Scott L, et al. Double-blind, placebo controlled study of acetyl-l-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. Curr Med Res Opin. 1990;11:638-647.
77 Salvioli G, Neri M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1994;20:169-176.
78 Cipolli C, Chiari G. Effects of L-acetylcarnitine on mental deterioration in the aged: initial results [in Italian; English abstract]. Clin Ter. 1990;132:479-510.
79 Loster H, Miehe K, Punzel M, et al. Prolonged oral L-carnitine substitution increases bicycle ergometer performance in patients with severe, ischemically induced cardiac insufficiency. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1999;13:537-546.
80 Lenzi A, Sgro P, Salacone P, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined L-carnitine and L-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:1578-1584.
81 Cavallini G, Caracciolo S, Vitali G, et al. Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging. Urology. 2004;63:641-646.
82 Gentile V, Vicini P, Prigiotti G, et al. Preliminary observations on the use of propionyl-L-carnitine in combination with sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction and diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004;20:1377-1384.
83 Sima AA, Calvani M, Mehra M, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: an analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials. Diabetes Care. 2004;28:89-94.
84 Pistone G, Marino A, Leotta C, et al. Levocarnitine administration in elderly subjects with rapid muscle fatigue: effect on body composition, lipid profile and fatigue. Drugs Aging. 2003;20:761-767.
85 Rahbar AR, Shakerhosseini R, Saadat N, et al. Effect of L-carnitine on plasma glycemic and lipidemic profile in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar 2. [Epub ahead of print]
86 Cavallini G, Ferraretti AP, Gianaroli L, et al. Cinnoxicam and L-carnitine/acetyl-L-carnitine treatment for idiopathic and varicocele-associated oligoasthenospermia. J Androl. 2004;25:761-770; discussion 771-772.
87 Pistone G, Marino A, Leotta C, et al. Levocarnitine administration in elderly subjects with rapid muscle fatigue: effect on body composition, lipid profile and fatigue. Drugs Aging. 2003;20:761-767.
88 Villani RG, Gannon J, Self M, et al. L-Carnitine supplementation combined with aerobic training does not promote weight loss in moderately obese women. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:199-207.
89 Tarantini G, Scrutinio D, Bruzzi P, et al. Metabolic Treatment with L-Carnitine in Acute Anterior ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Cardiology. 2006 May 9. [Epub ahead of print]
90 Garolla A, Maiorino M, Roverato A, et al. Oral carnitine supplementation increases sperm motility in asthenozoospermic men with normal sperm phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase levels. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:355-361.
91 Balercia G, Regoli F, Armeni T, et al. Placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:662-671.
92 Sigman M, Glass S, Campagnone J, et al. Carnitine for the treatment of idiopathic asthenospermia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2006 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print]
93 Cavallini G, Modenini F, Vitali G, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine plus propionyl-L-carnitine improve efficacy of sildenafil in treatment of erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Urology. 2005;66:1080-1085.
94 Zanardi R, Smeraldi E. A double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial of acetyl-l-carnitine vs. amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]
95 Maestri A, De Pasquale Ceratti A, Cundari S, et al. A pilot study on the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in paclitaxel- and cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. Tumori. 2005;91:135-138.
96 Malaguarnera M, Pistone G, Elvira R, et al. Effects of L-carnitine in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;11:7197-202.
97 Stuessi C, Hofer P, Meier C, et al. L: -Carnitine and the recovery from exhaustive endurance exercise: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 Sep 29. [Epub ahead of print]
98 Tarantini G, Scrutinio D, Bruzzi P, et al. Metabolic Treatment with L-Carnitine in Acute Anterior ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Cardiology. 2006 May 9. [Epub ahead of print]
99 Cavallini G, Modenini F, Vitali G, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine plus propionyl-L-carnitine improve efficacy of sildenafil in treatment of erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. Urology. 2005;66:1080-1085.
100 Garolla A, Maiorino M, Roverato A, et al. Oral carnitine supplementation increases sperm motility in asthenozoospermic men with normal sperm phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase levels. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:355-361.
101 Balercia G, Regoli F, Armeni T, et al. Placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:662-671.
102 Zanardi R, Smeraldi E. A double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trial of acetyl-l-carnitine vs. amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print]
103 Zhou X, Liu F, Zhai S. Effect of L-carnitine and/or L-acetyl-carnitine in nutrition treatment for male infertility: a systematic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(suppl):383-390.
104 Strauss M, Porras N. Differential expression of HSP70 and ultrastructure of heart and liver tissues of rats treated with adriamycin: protective role of L-carnitine. Invest Clin. 2007;48:33-43.
105 Youle M, Osio M. A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multicentre study of acetyl l-carnitine in the symptomatic treatment of antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in patients with HIV-1 infection. HIV Med. 2007;8:241-250.
106 Rossini M, Di Munno O, Valentini G, et al. Double-blind, multicenter trial comparing acetyl l-carnitine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007;25:182-188.
107 Ciacci C, Peluso G, Iannoni E, et al. L-Carnitine in the treatment of fatigue in adult celiac disease patients A pilot study. Dig Liver Dis. 2007 Aug 9. [Epub ahead of print]
108 Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Gargante MP, et al. L-Carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centenarians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1738-44.
109 Mitwalli AH, Al-Wakeel JS, Alam A, et al. L-carnitine supplementation in hemodialysis patients. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2005;16:17-22.
110 Smith WA, Fry AC, Tschume LC, et al. Effect of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008;18:19-36.
111 Arnold LE, Amato A, Bozzolo H, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a multi-site, placebo-controlled pilot trial. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007;17:791-802.
112 Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Cristaldi E, et al. Acetyl-L:-carnitine treatment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Mar 21.
113 Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, Russo C, et al. L-carnitine supplementation to diet: a new tool in treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis—a randomized and controlled clinical trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(6):1338-1345.
114 Dietary supplement fact sheet: carnitine. Office of Dietary Supplements website. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Carnitine-HealthProfessional/ . Accessed September 7, 2012.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013
- Update Date: 08/22/2013