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- Infants and toddlers
- Weakened immune system due to:
- Prolonged illness
- Use of antibiotics
- Use of corticosteroids, oral or inhaled
- Hormonal changes, such as pregnancy or use of birth control pills
- Conditions that cause a dry mouth
- White, raised patches
- Red, slightly raised patches
- Discharge with a curd-like appearance (like cottage cheese)
- Thick, dark brownish coating in the mouth
- Dry mouth
- Fissures or cracks in the mouth
- Difficulty or pain with swallowing
- Sensation of something “stuck” in your throat
- Nystatin (Bio-Statin, Nilstat)
- Clotrimazole (Lotrimin, Mycelex)
- Gentian violet (occasionally)
Treatment of Underlying Medical Conditions
Proper Oral Hygiene
- Rinsing your mouth with warm salt water
- Gently scraping off patches with a toothbrush
- Thrush in adults is associated with AIDS. Obtain a blood test for HIV and follow recommended prevention guidelines: use condoms and other protection and avoid needles except under sterile conditions.
- If you are at high risk or prone to thrush, you may be given an antifungal medication as a preventive measure.
- If you are prone to thrush, avoid overuse of mouthwashes and mouth sprays. These can upset the normal balance of yeast and bacteria in your mouth.
- If your baby is prone to thrush and drinks from a bottle, use disposable nipples.
- Avoid unnecessary use of antibiotics.
- If you must take antibiotics, consider eating yogurt or using acidophilus tablets during antibiotic treatment and for several weeks thereafter.
- Decrease intake of sugar and yeast-containing foods and beverages, such as bread, wine, and beer.
- If you use a cortisone inhaler, rinse your mouth thoroughly after each use.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) http://www.cdc.gov/
National Foundation for Infectious Diseases http://www.nfid.org/
Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca/
Canadian HIV/AIDS Information Centre http://www.cpha.ca/
Beers MH. The Merck Manual of Medical Information—Home Edition . 18th ed. Pocket Books; 2006.
Berkow R. The Merck Manual of Medical Information—Home Edition . Pocket Books; 1999.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov . Accessed July 7, 2009.
Cohen & Powderly: Infectious Diseases . 2nd ed. Mosby; 2005.
Greenspan D, Greenspan JS. HIV-related oral disease. Lancet ; 1996.
National Foundation for Infectious Diseases website. Available at: http://www.nfid.org . Accessed July 7, 2009.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at: http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/ . Accessed July 7, 2009.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of nystatin on the development of oral irritation in patients receiving high-dose intravenous interleukin-2. Journal of Immunotherapy ; 2001.
- Reviewer: Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012
- Update Date: 00/91/2012